Dossier No. 49, produced with the support of the Augustus Foundation, describes how the Italian Army, also adjusting to the lessons learned from the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, is carrying out ambitious renewal programs involving armored vehicles and drones.



  • Italy is pursuing an ambitious program to renew the armored vehicles in the Army's fleet: the acquisition program of the new Leopard 2 A8 tank, the upgrade of the Ariete-C2 tank, as well as the creation of a new platform of infantry, combat and derivative vehicles called A2CS (Army Armored Combat System).
  • These programs are part of a broader context concerning the procurement of land vehicles at the European level, the spearhead of which is the MGCS (Main Ground Combat System) program. A new platform of armored vehicles conceived as a "system of systems," it represents the most ambitious project in which Italy intends to participate in the future, together with France and Germany, with a view to establishing a European Land Industrial Cluster.
  • The most recent conflicts - especially the Russia-Ukraine confrontation - have demonstrated the ever-present relevance of the land dimension and of armored vehicles (tanks and infantry fighting vehicles), while at the same time revealing new vulnerabilities in the face of the latest technologies, especially the use of attack drones.
  • Research and investment in active defense systems (APS) represent a solution that would increase the protection of armored vehicles while trying to safeguard their mobility, maneuverability, and projection capabilities.
  • Remotely piloted aircraft have been a disruptive factor in the conduct of armed conflicts, especially through the use of loitering munitions (suicide drones) and swarm attacks.
  • The development of swarm intelligence and multi-agent systems, experimental fields of Artificial Intelligence applied to drones, could bring about a revolution in military affairs and the traditional conception of Command and Control.